TESA, or testicular sperm aspiration (also known as TESE, or testicular sperm extraction) is one of the surgical sperm harvesting techniques used for retrieving sperm in patients with azoospermia. A number of surgical sperm retrieval or recovery methods have been devised to recover sperm from the male reproductive tract.
There are 2 options for doing a TESA – diagnostic; or therapeutic. In a diagnostic TESE, the surgeon performs multiple diagnostic biopsies to determine if sperm are being produced in the testes or not. If no sperm are found , the diagnosis of complete testicular failure is confirmed; and treatment options then include adoption or donor insemination, since there is no treatment at present for this condition. If sperm are found, then these testicular sperm can be cryopreserved; and used for ICSI treatment in the future.
The advantage of doing a diagnostic TESE is that it is less expensive; and there is no need to give the wife expensive injections for superovulation.